Psychology: 10 surprising discoveries about the human mind

Dec 2021
6
5
Serbia
Although many consider psychology to be a science that only confirms what we already know about ourselves, Dr. Jeremy Dean, founder of PsyBlog, explains that one way to combat this misconception is to think about all those unexpected, surprising and simply strange scientific findings. study.

He singles out ten discoveries that were most interesting to him.

10. Cognitive dissonance
A study conducted in 1959 at Stanford University, in which students participated, found that participants in the experiments found the uninteresting task more interesting if they were paid less to solve it.

Cognitive dissonance is explained as a mental state in which an individual experiences two or more incompatible beliefs or cognitively processes more information. In the mentioned experiment, the students thought in the following way: if I don't do it for money, I certainly do it because it's interesting. Otherwise, they would not be able to explain their behavior.

9. Hallucinations are not as rare as we think
Since they act as dreams in reality, hallucinations are usually thought to be the result of a serious respiratory illness. However, they are far more common in healthy individuals than you might think: a study (conducted in 2000 at Stanford) found that a third of people experienced hallucinations - 20 percent once a month and two percent a week!

8. Placebo effect
Have you ever stopped feeling a headache the moment you take the medicine - even though it takes about 15 minutes for it to start working?

One study, published in the Diary of New England Medicine at the beginning of the 21st century, showed that the effect of physiological solution can be the same as the effect of morphine thanks to the placebo effect. Moreover, some experts believe that 80 percent of the effects of prozac are related to placebo.

7. Obedience to authority
Most people believe that she decides independently and that she would not hurt another human being unless she is forced to. Something as simple as a simple order wouldn't make you shock someone else, would it?

Stanley Milgram's famous study ("Milgram's Experiment") proved that the average person is ready to be obedient if he faces authority, even if what he is expected to do is completely contrary to his conscience. As many as 63 percent of the participants in the research injured others, even while the victims were screaming in pain.

This research was conducted in order to find a psychological explanation for the Nazi crimes.

6. Fantasizing reduces motivation
One of the most common methods of self-motivation is fantasizing about the future. For example, bodybuilders, while training, imagine what their body will look like if they remain persistent.

However, psychologists have determined that fantasizing is a bad way to motivate. Instead, they recommend mental contrast: combining positive thoughts about the goal with a realistic view of the obstacles that may arise.

5. Blindness of choice
We all know why we act the way we do, right? For example, it is clear to us why certain people are attracted to us. However, psychologists believe that this may not be the case.

In one study, scientists persuaded participants to justify choices they - in fact - did not even make.

The theory of "blindness by choice" explains that people have (not) any awareness of their choices and the reasons why they make them.

4. Two heads are smarter than one
The brainstorming technique is becoming more and more popular in the world, primarily in business, but one group of psychologists thinks that it is not useful. As one study showed, people in the team become lazy, forget their ideas while others present their own, worry about what someone will think about their attitude, etc.

However, groups evaluate ideas better.

3. Pushing
How many times have you been told that when you're worried about something, "Don't think about it now"? There is also the famous "I'll think about it tomorrow", which Scarlett O'Hara repeated, convinced that she would help herself in that way.

However, this is bad advice, psychologists believe. Suppression is counterproductive - the more we try not to think about something, the more we think about it.

A far better strategy is to divert attention.

2. Multitasking
Despite the limitations of the mind, it is possible to achieve almost amazing things with practice, and solving several tasks at the same time is certainly one of them. Can you believe there are people who can even read and write at the same time?

Thus, two participants in one study, during a practice period of only sixteen weeks, managed to learn to read a short story and group words from the list into categories at the same time.

1. Little things matter
People usually think that all the important events in their lives are, in fact, the most important: graduation, marriage, the birth of a child.

However, the most important events do not concern any major changes, because they affect us only in relation to things that concern themselves. On the other hand, everyday situations and trifles really affect an individual - the quality of sleep, small ups and downs at work and interpersonal relationships.
 
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Jul 2021
619
79
London
Although many consider psychology to be a science that only confirms what we already know about ourselves, Dr. Jeremy Dean, founder of PsyBlog, explains that one way to combat this misconception is to think about all those unexpected, surprising and simply strange scientific findings. study.

He singles out ten discoveries that were most interesting to him.

10. Cognitive dissonance
A study conducted in 1959 at Stanford University, in which students participated, found that participants in the experiments found the uninteresting task more interesting if they were paid less to solve it.

Cognitive dissonance is explained as a mental state in which an individual experiences two or more incompatible beliefs or cognitively processes more information. In the mentioned experiment, the students thought in the following way: if I don't do it for money, I certainly do it because it's interesting. Otherwise, they would not be able to explain their behavior.

9. Hallucinations are not as rare as we think
Since they act as dreams in reality, hallucinations are usually thought to be the result of a serious respiratory illness. However, they are far more common in healthy individuals than you might think: a study (conducted in 2000 at Stanford) found that a third of people experienced hallucinations - 20 percent once a month and two percent a week!

8. Placebo effect
Have you ever stopped feeling a headache the moment you take the medicine - even though it takes about 15 minutes for it to start working?

One study, published in the Diary of New England Medicine at the beginning of the 21st century, showed that the effect of physiological solution can be the same as the effect of morphine thanks to the placebo effect. Moreover, some experts believe that 80 percent of the effects of prozac are related to placebo.

7. Obedience to authority
Most people believe that she decides independently and that she would not hurt another human being unless she is forced to. Something as simple as a simple order wouldn't make you shock someone else, would it?

Stanley Milgram's famous study ("Milgram's Experiment") proved that the average person is ready to be obedient if he faces authority, even if what he is expected to do is completely contrary to his conscience. As many as 63 percent of the participants in the research injured others, even while the victims were screaming in pain.

This research was conducted in order to find a psychological explanation for the Nazi crimes.

6. Fantasizing reduces motivation
One of the most common methods of self-motivation is fantasizing about the future. For example, bodybuilders, while training, imagine what their body will look like if they remain persistent.

However, psychologists have determined that fantasizing is a bad way to motivate. Instead, they recommend mental contrast: combining positive thoughts about the goal with a realistic view of the obstacles that may arise.

5. Blindness of choice
We all know why we act the way we do, right? For example, it is clear to us why certain people are attracted to us. However, psychologists believe that this may not be the case.

In one study, scientists persuaded participants to justify choices they - in fact - did not even make.

The theory of "blindness by choice" explains that people have (not) any awareness of their choices and the reasons why they make them.

4. Two heads are smarter than one
The brainstorming technique is becoming more and more popular in the world, primarily in business, but one group of psychologists thinks that it is not useful. As one study showed, people in the team become lazy, forget their ideas while others present their own, worry about what someone will think about their attitude, etc.

However, groups evaluate ideas better.

3. Pushing
How many times have you been told that when you're worried about something, "Don't think about it now"? There is also the famous "I'll think about it tomorrow", which Scarlett O'Hara repeated, convinced that she would help herself in that way.

However, this is bad advice, psychologists believe. Suppression is counterproductive - the more we try not to think about something, the more we think about it.

A far better strategy is to divert attention.

2. Multitasking
Despite the limitations of the mind, it is possible to achieve almost amazing things with practice, and solving several tasks at the same time is certainly one of them. Can you believe there are people who can even read and write at the same time?

Thus, two participants in one study, during a practice period of only sixteen weeks, managed to learn to read a short story and group words from the list into categories at the same time.

1. Little things matter
People usually think that all the important events in their lives are, in fact, the most important: graduation, marriage, the birth of a child.

However, the most important events do not concern any major changes, because they affect us only in relation to things that concern themselves. On the other hand, everyday situations and trifles really affect an individual - the quality of sleep, small ups and downs at work and interpersonal relationships.
I actually feel that psychology is all about placebo effect, but guess who discovered this placebo effect, it was we pharmacologists-medchems :D